NEPA is our basic national charter for protection of the environment. The Act requires all federal agencies to examine the needs for, alternatives to, and environmental consequences of all major proposed actions. NEPA also ensures that environmental information is available to public officials and citizens and that public input is considered before decisions are made and before actions are taken. The Act also established the President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), whose primary responsibility is oversight of NEPA implementations. NEPA requires review of the need for, alternatives to, and impacts of any federal action that may cause water quality problem. It works in concert with parts of the Clean Water Act, such as Section 404 and 401, and the Endangered Species Act.
Source: River Network